© Copyright & ℗ Phonographic copyright
The © ‘C in a circle’ is the normal copyright symbol and can be applied to most types of work.
The ℗ ‘P in a circle’, is referred to as the sound recording, phonorecords, phonogram or phonographic copyright symbol.
Sound recordings have a separate copyright that is distinct from that of the underlying work. The duration of this will typically run from the date of publication of the sound recording and the ℗ character is used to denote the separate right that exists in the sound recording, (please see our Music Copyright fact sheet for more information on this topic).
Where to find © and ℗ symbols
Web site developers will normally use the HTML equivalent for the © which is ‘©’ or the Unicode for the character which is ‘©’.
The ℗ character does not have a direct HTML entity, but you can use the UTF8 character set code for the character, which is ‘℗’.
- In Microsoft Word:
Select the 'Insert' tab on Word’s ribbon. Then select the 'Symbol' button. You can then select the copyright symbol from the list displayed.
- In Open Office and Libre Office:
From the Insert menu, select 'Special Character', this will open a dialogue where you can select the symbol from a list of various symbols and characters. If you type "copyright" into the 'Search' here it will limit the results to just the © and ℗ characters.
- Character Map/Character Palette
On Windows computers, there is an applications called 'Character Map' that will allow you select the symbol from a list of various symbols and characters.
The © character should be easy to find here, but to find the ℗ character you will need to select the ‘Webdings’ font from the drop-down list at the top.
Apple Mac computers have an equivalent applicataion called 'Character Palette'.
- Predictive text
Many applications, tablets and phones will automatically insert the symbol.
Try typing a c in brackets '(c)' followed by a space and it may automatically change into the copyright symbol.
This should also work for registered trademark ® - '(r)', and sound recording copyright ℗ - '(p)' symbols.
- Look out for the Omega symbol Ω
In word processors, WYSIWYG editors, etc. the Omega symbol 'Ω' is commonly used as a menu item to insert special characters.
You can simply copy and paste the symbols from this page.
A typical copyright notice will state the word 'copyright', the symbol, the date of publication, the copyright owner's name.
Copyright © 2020 Ann Other.
For full details, please see our copyright notice fact sheet.